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Crude storage

As a place for receiving, storing anddistributing crude oil, the crude oil depot is used for storing single productwith high receiving and distribution amount and frequent transferring. It isthe important connection part between normal production of oilfield and crudeoil transportation (conveying). According to different conveying modes, thecrude oil depot is classified as follows:

Crude oil depot with railway conveying:the dedicated railways and related oil loading equipment are established in theoil depot. For example, the crude oils in Daqing Oilfield in 1960s were mainlyconveyed through railways and the crude oils in oil depot were sent tonationwide oil refineries by endless tank trains.

Crude oil with pipeline conveying: thecrude oils are sent to oil using units through pipeline. But the oilfield usingpipelines, such as Huabei Oilfield, may have no oil depots. The crude oils ofHuabei Oilfield are sent to Shilou in the north, Cangzhou and Shijiazhuang inthe south by means of pipelines. The heating and pressure stations shall beestablished on the delivery pipelines according to conveying distances and oilquantity.

Crude oilwith integrated conveying: the crude oils are sent to oil using units by tankcar on railways and the pipelines. For example, the crude oils from ShengliOilfield were sent to Xindian through pipeline and then sent to others placesthrough tank cars on railways; the oil pipeline from Dongying to Huangdao wasbuilt to convey crude oil outwards. Vessels can be used by oilfields which areclose to seas or rivers to send crude oils to oil using units. The vehicles canbe used for sending crude oils from remote oilfields with small area and oilproduction or the newly built oilfields if they have no integral systems yet.The principle is construction of station followed by lines construction and oiltransported followed by conveying.

Crude oil depot is generally composed ofoil collecting, storing and distributing equipment, as well as publicengineering, production and living facilities. The valve group and storage tankare mainly used as oil collecting and storing equipment separately. Thevertical cylindrical metallic oil tanks, including the tanks with or withouttorque, the dome roof tanks and floating roof tanks, are used for storing crudeoils. The distributing equipment are used for transporting or conveying crudeoils. The dedicated railway line, loading arm, trestle bridge, oil loading pumpand metering equipment are required for railway conveying. The outwardconveying pump, valve group, heating and metering equipment are required forpipeline conveying. The integration of distributing equipment above is adoptedby integrated transportation (conveying) oil dept. The altitude difference ofterrain shall be fully utilized if possible to save energy.

The public engineering in depot isbasically consistent with that in crude oil processing station. The safety andfirefighting in oil depot shall be prioritized since it will be disastrous ifthere is fire or explosion of crude oil depot.